Rauchmelder retten Leben!

Die DIN 14676 regelt die Planung, den Einbau, den Betrieb und die Instandhaltung von Rauchwarnmeldern für Wohnhäuser, Wohnungen und Räume mit wohnungsähnlicher Nutzung.

Die Rauchmelderpflicht gilt also auch für folgende Räume:

  • Freizeitunterkünfte und Ferienwohnungen
  • Beherbergungsbetriebe mit max. 11 Gastbetten
  • Containerräume
  • Hütten und Gartenlauben
  • Flure und Gänge mit gesonderter Brandlast (z.B. Elektrogeräten)

Ausgenommen sind Bereiche mit bauaufsichtlich geforderter Brandmeldeanlage.

Als Flur zählen auch Treppenräume eines Einfamilienhauses und Durchgangszimmer.

Die Aufsichtspflicht, d.h. die Verkehrssicherungs- und Sorgfaltspflicht liegt beim Eigentümer (= ggf. Vermieter) und dieser muss somit sicherstellen, dass der Rauchmelderpflicht nachgekommen wird (Ausnahme: Schleswig-Holstein und Mecklenburg-Vorpommern).

Die Wartung hingegen wird meist vom Besitzer/Mieter durchgeführt. In Bundesländern ohne eindeutige Regelung der Zuständigkeit für Montage und Wartung richtet sich die Landesbauordnung an die Eigentümer. Damit sind die Eigentümer für die Ausstattung, (Montage) und die Sicherstellung der Betriebsbereitschaft (Wartung) verantwortlich und damit auch in der Haftung.

Die Wartung darf an den Mieter, wenn er dem zustimmt, übergeben werden, der Vermieter müsste im Schadensfall aber nachweisen, wie die Wartungspflicht in rechtlichem Sinne übertragen wurde, sodass der Mieter diese auch tatsächlich übernommen hat. Außerdem muss sich der Vermieter vergewissern, dass die Wartung vom Mieter durchgeführt wurde. Weil das praktisch fast unmöglich ist, nehmen die meisten Eigentümer davon Abstand.

Deshalb wird die Wartung meist durch externe Firmen durchgeführt und als sonstige Betriebskosten (§ 2 Nr. 17 Betriebskostenverordnung) abgerechnet. In der Regel kostet die Wartung im Jahr nicht mehr als 5€ je Melder.

Die Anschaffung und Installation von Rauchmeldern gilt als Modernisierung. Diese kann zu einer Mieterhöhung von 11% der Anschaffungskosten führen. Die Wartung darf auch ohne Erwähnung im Mietvertrag auf die Betriebskosten umgelegt werden. Eine schriftliche Erklärung des Vermieters vorab ist jedoch notwendig.

Der Vermieter darf auch in Wohnungen, die bereits vom Mieter durch Rauchwarnmelder ausgestattet wurden, selbst gewählte Melder installieren.Dabei muss der Installationstermin mit dem Mieter rechtzeitig vereinbart werden.

Der Mieter kann nicht selbst der Rauchmelderpflicht durch den Einbau eigener Geräte nachkommen. Dies ist ein Verwaltungsakt des Vermieters, der in dem Fall die Verfügung und Pflicht besitzt.

Der Vermieter ist somit auch in der Pflicht Reparaturen zu zahlen, sollte aufgrund eines Alarms eine Tür gewaltsam geöffnet werden müssen.

Wird jedoch bei einem Täuschungsalarm die Feuerwehr gerufen, kann dem Alarmierenden kein Vorwurf gemacht werden. Es fallen keine Gebühren an, u.a. weil für diesen Fall keine Rechtsgrundlage existiert, um einen Kostenbescheid auszustellen.

Der Vermieter darf selbst entscheiden, welche Räume (zusätzlich zu den vorgeschriebenen) durch Rauchmelder ausgestattet werden.

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